Record Information
public_id FDB000484
Chemical Information
name Glycine
description Flavouring ingredient; dietary additive, nutrient Glycine (abbreviated as Gly or G) is the organic compound with the formula NH2CH2COOH. With only a hydrogen atom as its side chain, glycine is the smallest of the 20 amino acids commonly found in proteins. Glycine is unique among the proteinogenic amino acids in that it is not chiral. It can fit into hydrophilic or hydrophobic environment due to its single hydrogen atom side chain. It is coded by codons GGU, GGC, GGA and GGG. Most proteins incorporate only small quantities of glycine. A notable exception is collagen, which contains about 35% glycine. Glycine is a colourless, sweet-tasting crystalline solid.; Glycine is a simple, nonessential amino acid, although experimental animals show reduced growth on low-glycine diets. The average adult ingests 3 to 5 grams of glycine daily. Glycine is involved in the body's production of DNA, phospholipids and collagen, and in release of energy. Glycine levels are effectively measured in plasma in both normal patients and those with inborn errors of glycine metabolism. (http://www.dcnutrition.com/AminoAcids/) Nonketotic hyperglycinaemia (OMIM 606899) is an autosomal recessive condition caused by deficient enzyme activity of the glycine cleavage enzyme system (EC 2.1.1.10). The glycine cleavage enzyme system comprises four proteins: P-, T-, H- and L-proteins (EC 1.4.4.2, EC 2.1.2.10 and EC 1.8.1.4 for P-, T- and L-proteins). Mutations have been described in the GLDC (OMIM 238300), AMT (OMIM 238310), and GCSH (OMIM 238330) genes encoding the P-, T-, and H-proteins respectively. The glycine cleavage system catalyses the oxidative conversion of glycine into carbon dioxide and ammonia, with the remaining one-carbon unit transferred to folate as methylenetetrahydrofolate. It is the main catabolic pathway for glycine and it also contributes to one-carbon metabolism. Patients with a deficiency of this enzyme system have increased glycine in plasma, urine and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with an increased CSF: plasma glycine ratio. (PMID 16151895); Glycine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, especially in the spinal cord, brainstem, and retina. When glycine receptors are activated, chloride enters the neuron via ionotropic receptors, causing an Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP). Strychnine is a strong antagonist at ionotropic glycine receptors, whereas bicuculline is a weak one. Glycine is a required co-agonist along with glutamate for NMDA receptors. In contrast to the inhibitory role of glycine in the spinal cord, this behaviour is facilitated at the (NMDA) glutaminergic receptors which are excitatory.[citation needed] The LD50 of glycine is 7930 mg/kg in rats (oral), and it usually causes death by hyperexcitability.; Glycine is an intermediate in the synthesis of a variety of chemical products. It is used in the manufacture of the herbicide Glyphosate. Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) is a non-selective systemic herbicide used to kill weeds, especially perennials and broadcast or used in the cut-stump treatment as a forestry herbicide. Initially, Glyphosate was sold only by Monsanto under the Monsanto tradename Roundup, but is no longer under patent.; Helps trigger the release of oxygen to the energy requiring cell-making process
cas_number 56-40-6
Properties
created_at 2010-04-08 22:04:35
updated_at 2012-01-20 00:50:56
moldb_smiles NCC(O)=O
moldb_formula C2H5NO2
moldb_average_mass 75.0666
moldb_inchi InChI=1S/C2H5NO2/c3-1-2(4)5/h1,3H2,(H,4,5)
moldb_mono_mass 75.032028409
moldb_inchikey InChIKey=DHMQDGOQFOQNFH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
moldb_iupac 2-aminoacetic acid
Structure Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym Source
2-Aminoacetate biospider
2-Aminoacetic acid biospider
Aciport biospider
Adenine biospider
Amino-acetate biospider
Amino-acetic acid biospider
Aminoacetate biospider
Aminoethanoate biospider
Aminoethanoic acid biospider
Amitone biospider
Athenon biospider
Glicoamin biospider
Glycin biospider
Glycocoll db_source
Padil biospider
Aminoacetic acid, 9CI db_source
E640 db_source
FEMA 3287 db_source
Glue sugar db_source
Gly db_source