Record Information
public_id FDB013269
Chemical Information
name Cholesterol
description Constit. either free or as esters, of fish liver oils, lard, dairy fats, egg yolk and bran About 20?25% of total daily cholesterol production occurs in the liver; other sites of high synthesis rates include the intestines, adrenal glands and reproductive organs. Synthesis within the body starts with one molecule of acetyl CoA and one molecule of acetoacetyl-CoA, which are dehydrated to form 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA). This molecule is then reduced to mevalonate by the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase. This step is an irreversible step in cholesterol synthesis and is the site of action for the statins (HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors).; Cholesterol is a lipidic, waxy steroid found in the cell membranes and transported in the blood plasma of all animals. It is an essential component of mammalian cell membranes where it is required to establish proper membrane permeability and fluidity. In addition, cholesterol is an important precursor molecule for the biosynthesis of bile acids, steroid hormones, and several fat soluble vitamins. Cholesterol is the principal sterol synthesized by animals, but small quantities are synthesized in other eukaryotes, such as plants and fungi. It is almost completely absent among prokaryotes, which include bacteria.; Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol) and a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and transported in the blood plasma of all animals. The name originates from the Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), and the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol, as researchers first identified cholesterol (C27H45OH) in solid form in gallstones in 1784. Cholesterol is transported throughout the body via lipoprotein particles. The largest lipoproteins, which primarily transport fats from the intestinal mucosa to the liver, are called chylomicrons. They carry mostly triglyceride fats and cholesterol (that are from food and especially internal cholesterol secreted by the liver into the bile). In the liver, chylomicron particles give up triglycerides and some cholesterol, and are converted into low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, which carry triglycerides and cholesterol on to other body cells. In healthy individuals the LDL particles are large and relatively few in number. In contrast, large numbers of small LDL particles are strongly associated with promoting atheromatous disease within the arteries. (Lack of information on LDL particle number and size is one of the major problems of conventional lipid tests.). In conditions with elevated concentrations of oxidized LDL particles, especially small LDL particles, cholesterol promotes atheroma plaque deposits in the walls of arteries, a condition known as atherosclerosis, which is a major contributor to coronary heart disease and other forms of cardiovascular disease. (In contrast, HDL particles have been the only identified mechanism by which cholesterol can be removed from atheroma. Increased concentrations of large HDL particles, not total HDL particles, correlate with lower rates of atheroma progressions, even regression.). There is a world-wide trend to believe that lower total cholesterol levels tend to correlate with lower atherosclerosis event rates (though many studies refute this idea). Due to this reason, cholesterol has become a very large focus for scientific researchers trying to determine the proper amount of cholesterol needed in a healthy diet. However, the primary association of atherosclerosis with cholesterol has always been specifically with cholesterol transport patterns, not total cholesterol per se. For example, total cholesterol can be low, yet made up primarily of small LDL and small HDL particles and atheroma growth rates are high. In contrast, however, if LDL particle number is low (mostly large particles) and a large percentage of the HDL particles are large (HDL is actively reverse transporting cholesterol), then atheroma growth rates are usually low, even negative, for any given total cholesterol concentration. These effects are further complicated by the relative concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginin (ADMA) in the endothelium, since ADMA down-regulates production of nitric oxide, a relaxant of the endothelium. Thus, high levels of ADMA, associated with high oxidized levels of LDL pose a heightened risk factor for vascular disease. -- Wikipedia; Given the well-recognized role of cholesterol in cardiovascular disease, it is surprising that some studies have shown an inverse correlation between cholesterol levels and mortality in subjects over 50 years of age?an 11% increase overall and 14% increase in CVD mortality per 1 mg/dL per year drop in cholesterol levels. In the Framingham Heart Study, the researchers attributed this phenomenon to the fact that people with severe chronic diseases or cancer tend to have below-normal cholesterol levels. This explanation is not supported by the Vorarlberg Health Monitoring and Promotion Programme, in which men of all ages and women over 50 with very low cholesterol were increasingly likely to die of cancer, liver diseases, and mental diseases. This result indicates that the low cholesterol effect occurs even among younger respondents, contradicting the previous assessment among cohorts of older people that this is a proxy or marker for frailty occurring with age.; Mevalonate is then converted to 3-isopentenyl pyrophosphate in three reactions which require ATP. This molecule is decarboxylated to isopentenyl pyrophosphate, which is a key metabolite for various biological reactions. Three molecules of isopentenyl pyrophosphate condense to form farnesyl pyrophosphate through the action of geranyl transferase. Two molecules of farnesyl pyrophosphate then condense to form squalene by the action of squalene synthase in the endoplasmic reticulum. Oxidosqualene cyclase then cyclizes squalene to form lanosterol. Finally, lanosterol is then converted to cholesterol.; Within cells, cholesterol is the precursor molecule in several biochemical pathways. In the liver, cholesterol is converted to bile, which is then stored in the gallbladder. Bile contains bile salts, which solubilize fats in the digestive tract and aid in the intestinal absorption of fat molecules as well as the fat soluble vitamins, Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E and Vitamin K. Cholesterol is an important precursor molecule for the synthesis of Vitamin D and the steroid hormones, including the adrenal gland hormones cortisol and aldosterone as well as the sex hormones progesterone, estrogens, and testosterone and their derivatives.
cas_number 57-88-5
Properties
created_at 2010-04-08 22:10:37
updated_at 2011-10-30 14:09:01
moldb_smiles CC(C)CCCC(C)C1CCC2C3CC=C4CC(O)CCC4(C)C3CCC12C
moldb_formula C27H46O
moldb_average_mass 386.6535
moldb_inchi InChI=1S/C27H46O/c1-18(2)7-6-8-19(3)23-11-12-24-22-10-9-20-17-21(28)13-15-26(20,4)25(22)14-16-27(23,24)5/h9,18-19,21-25,28H,6-8,10-17H2,1-5H3
moldb_mono_mass 386.354866094
moldb_inchikey InChIKey=HVYWMOMLDIMFJA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
moldb_iupac 2,15-dimethyl-14-(6-methylheptan-2-yl)tetracyclo[8.7.0.0^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadec-7-en-5-ol
Structure Thumb
Synonyms
Synonym Source
«delta»5-Cholesten-3-β-ol biospider
(+)-ent-cholesterol biospider
(-)-cholesterol biospider
(20bFH)-cholest-5-en-3b-ol biospider
(3β)-Cholest-5-en-3-ol biospider
(3b)-cholest-5-en-3-ol biospider
(3beta)-Cholest-5-en-3-ol biospider
(3H)-Cholesterol biospider
1zhy biospider
20-epi-cholesterol biospider
20-iso-cholesterol biospider
20bFH-cholest-5-en-3b-ol biospider
3β-Hydroxycholest-5-ene biospider
3-beta-Hydroxycholest-5-ene biospider
3beta-Hydroxy-5-cholestene biospider
3beta-Hydroxycholest-5-ene biospider
5, 6-Cholesten-3β-ol biospider
5,6-Cholesten-3β-ol biospider
5-Cholesten-3β-ol biospider
5-Cholesten-3B-ol biospider
5-Cholesten-3beta-ol biospider
5:6-Cholesten-3β-ol biospider
5:6-Cholesten-3-ol biospider
5:6-Cholesten-3beta-ol biospider
Cholest-5-en-3β-ol biospider
Cholest-5-en-3-beta-ol biospider
Cholest-5-en-3-ol biospider
Cholest-5-en-3-ol (3β)- biospider
Cholest-5-en-3-ol (3beta)- biospider
Cholest-5-en-3-ol (3beta)-, labeled with tritium biospider
Cholest-5-en-3-ol, (3β)- biospider
Cholest-5-en-3-ol, (3beta)- biospider
cholest-5-en-3b-ol biospider
cholest-5-en-3beta-ol biospider
Cholesterin db_source
Cholesterine biospider
Cholesterinum biospider
Cholesterinum Dps (D3-C1000) biospider
Cholesterinum Dps 4ch-30ch biospider
Cholesterinum-Injeel Forte Liq (6d,12d,30d,200d/1.1ml) biospider
Cholesterol (JP15/NF) biospider
Cholesterol (TN) biospider
Cholesterol base h biospider
Cholesterol [usan:jan] biospider
Cholesterolum biospider
Cholesteryl alcohol biospider
Cholestrin biospider
Cholestrol biospider
CLR biospider
Cordulan biospider
Dastar biospider
delta(sup 5)-Cholesten-3-beta-ol biospider
Delta5-Cholesten-3beta-ol biospider
Dusoline biospider
Dusoran biospider
Dythol biospider
Epicholesterin biospider
Epicholesterol biospider
Fancol CH biospider
Hydrocerin biospider
Kathro biospider
Lanol biospider
Lidinit biospider
Lidinite biospider
Liquid crystal CN/9 biospider
Nimco cholesterol base h biospider
Nimco cholesterol base No. 712 biospider
Phospholipon & cholesterol biospider
Provitamin d (van) biospider
Soya phospholipon & Cholesterol (2:1 molar ratio) biospider
Super hartolan biospider
Synthechol(r) biospider
SyntheChol(R) NS0 Supplement biospider
Synthetic cholesterol biospider
Tegolan biospider
Tegolan (van) biospider
Wool alcohols b. p biospider
Wool alcohols b. p. biospider
Cholesterol, BAN, USAN db_source
NSC 8798 db_source