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Name Description
id 7
T3DB ID T3D0007
Name Cadmium
Class SmallMolecule
Description Cadmium (group IIB of the periodic table of elements) is a heavy metal. It is not a naturally occurring metal in biological systems. Cadmium poses severe risks to human health. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. Up to this day, it has not been shown that cadmium has any physiological function within the human body. Interest has therefore risen in its biohazardous potential. As first described by Friedrich Stromeyer (Gottingen, Germany) in 1817, cadmium intoxication can lead to kidney, bone, and pulmonary damage. Cadmium is widely used in industrial processes, e.g as an anticorrosive agent, as a stabilizer in PVC products, as a colour pigment, a neutron absorber in nuclear power plants, and in the fabrication of nickel cadmium batteries. Phosphate fertilizers also show a big cadmium load. Although some cadmium containing products can be recycled, a large share of the general cadmium pollution is caused by dumping and incinerating cadmium polluted waste. In Scandinavia for example, cadmium concentration in agricultural soil increases by 0.2 percent per year. Total global emission of cadmium amounts to 7000 t/year. The maximum permissible value for workers according to German law is 15 ug/l. For comparison: Non-smokers show an average cadmium blood concentration of 0.5 ug/l. Basically there are three possible ways of cadmium resorption: Gastrointestinal, pulmonary and dermal. The uptake through the human gastrointestinal is approximately 5 percent of an ingested amount of cadmium, depending on the exact dose and nutritional composition. The major source of inhalative cadmium intoxication is cigarette smoke. The human lung resorbes 40 to 60 percent of the cadmium in tobacco smoke. Little research has been done on dermal absorption of cadmium. Two mechanisms facilitate cadmium absorption by the skin: binding of a free cadmium ion to sulfhydryl radicals of cysteine in epidermal keratins, or an induction and complexing with metallothionein. Once taken up by the blood, the majority of cadmium is transported bound to proteins, such as Albumin and Metallothionein. The first organ reached after cadmium uptake into the GI-blood is the liver. Here cadmium induces the production of Metallothionein. After consecutive hepatocyte necrosis and apoptosis, Cd-Metallothionein complexes are washed into sinusoidal blood. From here, parts of the absorbed cadmium enter the entero-hepatical cycle via secretion into the biliary tract in form of Cadmium-glutathione conjugates. Enzymatically degraded to cadmium-cysteine complexes in the biliary tree, cadmium reenters the small intestines. The main organ for long-term cadmium accumulation is the kidney. Here the half life period for cadmium is approximately 10 years. A life long intake can therefore lead to a cadmium accumulation in the kidney, consequently resulting in tubulus cell necrosis. The blood concentration of cadmium serves as a reliable indicator for a recent exposition, while the urinary concentration reflects past exposure, body burden and renal accumulation. Excretion of Cadmium takes place via faeces and urine. (A7670).
Categories "Cigarette Toxin", "Household Toxin", "Industrial/Workplace Toxin", "Pollutant", "Airborne Pollutant", "Food Toxin", "Natural Toxin"
Types "Inorganic Compound", "Metal", "Cadmium Compound", "Pollutant", "Food Toxin", "Metabolite", "Cigarette Toxin", "Household Toxin", "Industrial/Workplace Toxin", "Natural Compound"
Synonyms "Cadmium ion", "Cadmium(2+)", "Cadmium(2+) ion", "Cadmium(II)", "Cadmium(II) cation", "Cadmium(II) ion", "Cd(2+)", "Cd2+", "Metallic cadmium"
CAS Number 7440-43-9
Chemical Formula Cd
Average Molecular Mass 112.41
Monoisotopic Mass 113.90
IUPAC Name cadmium(2+) ion
Traditional Name cadmium(2+) ion
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/Cd/q+2
Kingdom Inorganic Compounds
Super Class Homogeneous Metal Compounds
Class Homogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Sub Class
Direct Parent Homogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Alternate Parents "Inorganic Cations"
Geometric Description Acyclic Compounds
Substituents "Inorganic Cation", "Acyclic Compound", "Homogeneous Transition Metal"
Descriptors "monoatomic dication (ChEBI)", "divalent metal cation (ChEBI)", "a cation (MetaCyc)", "cadmium cation (ChEBI)"
Status Detected and Quantified
Origin Exogenous
Cellular Locations "Cytoplasm", "Extracellular"
Biofluids "Blood", "Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)", "Saliva", "Urine"
State Solid
Appearance Bluish-white metallic solid.
Melting Point 321°C
Boiling Point 1040?K (767?°C, 1413?°F)
Route of Exposure Oral (L6) ; inhalation (L6) ; dermal (L6)
Mechanism of Toxicity Cadmium initially binds to metallothionein and is transported to the kidney. Toxic effects are observed once the concentration of cadmium exceeds that of available metallothionein, and it has also been shown that the cadmium-metallothionein complex may be damaging. Accumulation of cadmium in the kidney results in increased excretion of vital low and high molecular weight proteins. Cadmium is a high affinity zinc analog and can interfere in its biological processes. It also binds to and activates the estrogen receptor, likely stimulating the growth of certain types of cancer cells and causing other estrogenic effects, such as reproductive dysfunction. Cadmium causes cell apoptosis by activating mitogen-activated protein kinases. (L8, A18, A19, A28)
Metabolism Cadmium is absorbed from oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. Cadmium initially binds to metallothionein and albumin and is transported mainly to the kidney and liver. Toxic effects are observed once the concentration of cadmium exceeds that of available metallothionein, and it has also been shown that the cadmium-metallothionein complex may be damaging. Cadmium is not known to undergo any direct metabolic conversion and is excreted unchanged, mainly in the urine. (L6)
Toxicity LD50: 225 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (T14) LD50: 5700 ug/kg (Intraperitoneal, Mouse) (T14)
Lethal Dose 150 mg (oral) or 39 mg/m3 over 20 minutes (inhalation) for an adult human. (T14, A108)
Carcinogenicity 1, carcinogenic to humans. (L135)
Uses/Sources Cadmium is used mainly in the electroplating of other metals and the production of metal alloys. It can be found in batteries, pigments, metal coatings, and plastics. Exposure usually occurs in an industrial setting, but can also result from breathing cigarette smoke and eating contaminated foods. (L6)
Minimum Risk Level Acute Inhalation: 0.00003 mg/m3 (L134) Chronic Inhalation: 0.00001 mg/m3 (L134) Intermediate Oral: 0.0005 mg/kg/day (L134) Chronic Oral: 0.0001 mg/kg/day (L134)
Health Effects Chronic exposure to cadmium fumes can cause chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, and lung diseases such as bronchitis and emphysema. Cadmium also accumulates in the kidneys, causing permanent damage. Loss of bone density also occurs. (L6)
Symptoms Acute inhalation of cadmium fumes results in metal fume fever, which is characterized by chills, fever, headache, weakness, dryness of the nose and throat, chest pain, and coughing. Ingestion of cadmium causes vomiting and diarrhea. (L6)
Treatment Cadmium poisoning is treated by removal from exposure and supportive care. If ingested, induced vomiting or gastric lavage may be performed. (L139)
DrugBank ID
PubChem Compound ID 31193
ChemSpider ID 28935
KEGG Compound ID C01413
UniProt ID 0
ChEBI ID 48775
BioCyc ID CD%2b2
CTD ID D002104
Stitch ID Cadmium
ACToR ID 6393
Wikipedia Link http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cadmium
Creation Date 2009-03-06 18:57:54
Update Date 2014-12-24 20:20:51