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Name Description
id 10
T3DB ID T3D0011
Name Chloroform
Class SmallMolecule
Description Chloroform is found in spearmint. Indirect food additive arising from adhesives and polymers Chloroform is a common solvent in the laboratory because it is relatively unreactive, miscible with most organic liquids, and conveniently volatile. Chloroform is used as a solvent in the pharmaceutical industry and for producing dyes and pesticides. Chloroform is an effective solvent for alkaloids in their base form and thus plant material is commonly extracted with chloroform for pharmaceutical processing. For example, it is commercially used to extract morphine from poppies and scopolamine from Datura plants. Chloroform containing deuterium (heavy hydrogen), CDCl3, is a common solvent used in NMR spectroscopy. It can be used to bond pieces of acrylic glass (also known under the trade names Perspex and Plexiglas). Chloroform is a solvent of phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol 25:24:1 is used to dissolve non-nucleic acid biomolecules in DNA and RNA extractions. Chloroform is the organic compound with formula CHCl3. It does not undergo combustion in air, although it will burn when mixed with more flammable substances. It is a member of a group of compounds known as trihalomethanes. Chloroform has myriad uses as a reagent and a solvent. It is also considered an environmental hazard. Several million tons are produced annually. The output of this process is a mixture of the four chloromethanes: chloromethane, dichloromethane, chloroform (trichloromethane), and carbon tetrachloride, which are then separated by distillation. Chloroform has been shown to exhibit antifoaming agent, anti-coagulant, depressant, analgesic and anti-fungal functions (A7671, A7672, A7673, A7674, A7675). Chloroform belongs to the family of Organochlorides. These are organic compounds containing a chlorine atom.
Categories "Cigarette Toxin", "Pesticide", "Household Toxin", "Industrial/Workplace Toxin", "Pollutant", "Airborne Pollutant", "Food Toxin", "Synthetic Toxin"
Types "Organic Compound", "Organochloride", "Solvent", "Indicator and Reagent", "Pesticide", "Pollutant", "Drug", "Food Toxin", "Metabolite", "Cigarette Toxin", "Household Toxin", "Industrial/Workplace Toxin", "Synthetic Compound"
Synonyms "1,1,1-Trichloromethane", "CF", "CHCl3", "Formyl trichloride", "Methane trichloride", "Methenyl chloride", "Methenyl trichloride", "Methyl trichloride", "Methylidyne trichloride", "TCM", "Trichloro-Methane", "Trichloroform", "Trichloromethane"
CAS Number 67-66-3
Chemical Formula CHCl3
Average Molecular Mass 119.38
Monoisotopic Mass 117.91
IUPAC Name trichloromethane
Traditional Name chloroform
SMILES ClC(Cl)Cl
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/CHCl3/c2-1(3)4/h1H
InChI Key InChIKey=HEDRZPFGACZZDS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Kingdom Organic Compounds
Super Class Organohalogen Compounds
Class Organochlorides
Sub Class
Direct Parent Organochlorides
Alternate Parents "Alkyl Chlorides"
Geometric Description Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
Substituents "organochloride", "alkyl chloride", "Aliphatic Acyclic Compound", "Alkyl Halide"
Descriptors "a small molecule (MetaCyc)", "one-carbon compound (ChEBI)", "chloromethanes (ChEBI)"
Status Detected and Quantified
Origin Exogenous
Cellular Locations "Cytoplasm", "Extracellular"
Biofluids "Blood"
Tissues
Pathways
State Liquid
Appearance Colorless liquid.
Melting Point -63.2°C
Boiling Point 61.2 °C
Solubility 7.95 mg/mL at 25°C
LogP 1.97
Route of Exposure Oral (L13) ; inhalation (L13)
Mechanism of Toxicity Chloroform and the reactive intermediates of chloroform metabolism, especially phosgene, bind covalently and irreversibly to cellular macromolecules and cause cellular damage within the liver and kidney. While the exact mechanism is unknown, phosgene has been shown to react with molecules such as cysteine, deplete hepatic glutathione, form adducts with microsomal proteins, and elevate hepatic enzyme levels. Chloroform has also been shown to block HERG potassium channels, causing cardiac arrest. (L13, A11, A29)
Metabolism Chloroform in absorbed mainly through the lungs. Once in the body it concentrates in lipid-containing organs such as the adipose tissue, the central nervous system, kidney and liver. It is eliminated unchanged in expired air or metabolized by the liver via a cytochrome P450 mechanism and excreted in the urine and faeces. (A11)
Toxicity LD50: 36 mg/kg (Oral, Mouse) (L138) LD50: 623 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Mouse) (L138) LD50: 704 mg/kg (Subcutaneous, Mouse) (L138) LC50: 47 702 mg/m3 over 4 hours (Inhalation, Rat) (L138)
Lethal Dose 10 mL for an adult human. (T17)
Carcinogenicity 2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans. (L135)
Uses/Sources Chloroform is found in refridgerants and is also used as a solvent or reagent in the synthesis of other chemicals. Exposure may results from contact with contaminated air or water. (L13)
Minimum Risk Level Acute Inhalation: 0.1 ppm (L134) Intermediate Inhalation: 0.05 ppm (L134) Chronic Inhalation: 0.02 ppm (L134) Acute Oral: 0.3 mg/kg/day (L134) Intermediate Oral: 0.1 mg/kg/day (L134) Chronic Oral: 0.1 mg/kg/day (L134)
Health Effects Chronic exposure to chloroform causes liver and kidney damage. It has also been shown to have detrimental reproductive and developmental effects. Skin contact with large amounts of chloroform results in sores. Inhaling large amounts of chloroform can cause central nervous system and respiratory depression, and may be fatal. (L13)
Symptoms Acute inhalation of chloroform causes dizziness, fatigue, and headache. (L13)
Treatment There is no known antidote for chloroform. Exposure is usually handled with symptomatic treatment. (L13)
DrugBank ID
HMDB ID HMDB29596
PubChem Compound ID 6212
ChEMBL ID CHEMBL44618
ChemSpider ID 5977
KEGG Compound ID C13827
UniProt ID 0
OMIM ID 0
ChEBI ID 35255
BioCyc ID 5-CHLOROFORMYCIN
CTD ID D002725
Stitch ID Chloroform
PDB ID MCH
ACToR ID 307
Wikipedia Link http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chloroform
Creation Date 2009-03-06 18:57:55
Update Date 2014-12-24 20:20:51