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Name Description
id 58
T3DB ID T3D0065
Name Chromium(VI) oxide
Class SmallMolecule
Description Chromium(VI) oxide is a chemical compound of hexavalent chromium. It is used mainly in electroplating. Hexavalent chromium is more toxic than other oxidation states of the chromium atom because of its greater ability to enter cells and higher redox potential. (L50)
Categories "Industrial/Workplace Toxin", "Pollutant", "Airborne Pollutant", "Synthetic Toxin"
Types "Inorganic Compound", "Chromium Compound", "Pollutant", "Industrial/Workplace Toxin", "Synthetic Compound"
Synonyms "Anadonis green", "Casalis green", "Chrome bronze", "Chrome green", "Chrome Green F3", "Chrome ocher", "Chrome ochre", "Chrome oxide", "Chrome oxide green BX", "Chrome oxide green GN-m", "Chrome oxide green GP", "Chromia", "Chromic anhydride", "Chromic oxide", "Chromic trioxide", "Chromium oxide", "Chromium oxide green", "Chromium sesquioxide", "Chromium trioxide sintered", "Chromosulfuric acid", "Chromous trioxide", "Chromtrioxid", "CrO3", "Green chrome oxide", "Green chromic oxide", "Green chromium oxide", "Green cinnabar", "Green oxide of chromium", "Green rouge", "Levanox green GA", "Monochromium oxide", "Monochromium trioxide", "Oxide of chromium", "Pigment green 17", "Puratronic chromium trioxide", "Pure Chromium Oxide Green 59", "Red oxide of chromium", "Sintered chromium trioxide", "Trioxochromium", "[CrO3]"
CAS Number 1333-82-0
Chemical Formula CrO3
Average Molecular Mass 99.99
Monoisotopic Mass 99.93
IUPAC Name trioxochromium
Traditional Name chromium trioxide
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/Cr.3O
Kingdom Inorganic Compounds
Super Class Mixed Metal/Non-metal Compounds
Class Transition Metal Organides
Sub Class Transition Metal Oxides
Direct Parent Transition Metal Oxides
Alternate Parents "Transition metal salts", "Inorganic Oxides"
Geometric Description Acyclic Compounds
Substituents "Acyclic Compound", "Transition Metal Oxide", "Inorganic Oxide", "Transition metal salt"
Descriptors "chromium oxide (ChEBI)"
Status Detected and Quantified
Origin Exogenous
Cellular Locations "Cytoplasm", "Extracellular"
Biofluids "Blood", "Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)", "Saliva", "Urine"
State Solid
Appearance Dark red-brown solid.
Melting Point 197°C
Boiling Point
Route of Exposure Oral (L16) ; inhalation (L16) ; dermal (L16)
Mechanism of Toxicity Hexavalent chromium's carcinogenic effects are caused by its metabolites, pentavalent and trivalent chromium. The DNA damage may be caused by hydroxyl radicals produced during reoxidation of pentavalent chromium by hydrogen peroxide molecules present in the cell. Trivalent chromium may also form complexes with peptides, proteins, and DNA, resulting in DNA-protein crosslinks, DNA strand breaks, DNA-DNA interstrand crosslinks, chromium-DNA adducts, chromosomal aberrations and alterations in cellular signaling pathways. It has been shown to induce carcinogenesis by overstimulating cellular regulatory pathways and increasing peroxide levels by activating certain mitogen-activated protein kinases. It can also cause transcriptional repression by cross-linking histone deacetylase 1-DNA methyltransferase 1 complexes to CYP1A1 promoter chromatin, inhibiting histone modification. Chromium may increase its own toxicity by modifying metal regulatory transcription factor 1, causing the inhibition of zinc-induced metallothionein transcription. (A12, L16, A34, A35, A36)
Metabolism Chromium is absorbed from oral, inhalation, or dermal exposure and distributes to nearly all tissues, with the highest concentrations found in kidney and liver. Bone is also a major storage site and may contribute to long-term retention. Hexavalent chromium's similarity to sulfate and chromate allow it to be transported into cells via sulfate transport mechanisms. Inside the cell, hexavalent chromium is reduced first to pentavalent chromium, then to trivalent chromium by many substances including ascorbate, glutathione, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. Chromium is almost entirely excreted with the urine. (A12, L16)
Toxicity LD50: 80 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (T14) LD50: 14 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Mouse) (T14)
Lethal Dose 1 to 3 grams for an adult human. (A119)
Carcinogenicity 1, carcinogenic to humans. (L135)
Uses/Sources Chromium(VI) oxide is used mainly in electroplating. (L50)
Minimum Risk Level Intermediate Oral: 0.005 mg/kg/day (L134) Chronic Oral: 0.001 mg/kg/day (L134)
Health Effects Hexavalent chromium is a known carcinogen. Chronic inhalation especially has been linked to lung cancer. Hexavalent chromium has also been known to cause reproductive and developmental defects. (A12)
Symptoms Breathing hexavalent chromium can cause irritation to the lining of the nose, nose ulcers, runny nose, and breathing problems, such as asthma, cough, shortness of breath, or wheezing. Ingestion of hexavalent chromium causes irritation and ulcers in the stomach and small intestine, as well as anemia. Skin contact can cause skin ulcers. (L16)
Treatment There is no known antidote for chromium poisoning. Exposure is usually handled with symptomatic treatment. (L16)
DrugBank ID
PubChem Compound ID 14915
ChemSpider ID 14212
KEGG Compound ID
UniProt ID 0
ChEBI ID 48240
BioCyc ID
CTD ID C028801
Stitch ID Chromium(VI) oxide
ACToR ID 8144
Wikipedia Link http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromium trioxide
Creation Date 2009-03-06 18:58:01
Update Date 2014-12-24 20:21:01