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Name Description
id 72
T3DB ID T3D0080
Name Dichloromethane
Class SmallMolecule
Description Dichloromethane is used as an extraction solvent in the preparation of decaffeinated coffee, hop extracts and spice oleoresins. Diluent for colour additives and inks for marking fruit and vegetables The output of these processes is a mixture of methyl chloride, dichloromethane, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride. These compounds are separated by distillation. Dichloromethane has been shown to exhibit anti-tumor, anti-proliferative, analgesic, anti-fungal and antibiotic functions (A7704, A7705, A7706, A7707, A7708). Dichloromethane belongs to the family of Organochlorides. These are organic compounds containing a chlorine atom.
Categories "Pesticide", "Household Toxin", "Industrial/Workplace Toxin", "Pollutant", "Airborne Pollutant", "Food Toxin", "Synthetic Toxin"
Types "Organic Compound", "Organochloride", "Solvent", "Pesticide", "Pollutant", "Food Toxin", "Metabolite", "Household Toxin", "Industrial/Workplace Toxin", "Synthetic Compound"
Synonyms "Aerothene", "Aerothene MM", "CH2Cl2", "DCM", "Dichloro-Methane", "Distillex DS3", "Driverit", "Freon 30", "M-Clean D", "Methane dichloride", "Methoklone", "Methylene bichloride", "Methylene chloride", "Methylene dichloride", "Narkotil", "Nevolin", "Salesthin", "Solaesthin", "Solmethine"
CAS Number 02-09-75
Chemical Formula CH2Cl2
Average Molecular Mass 84.93
Monoisotopic Mass 83.95
IUPAC Name dichloromethane
Traditional Name methylene chloride
SMILES ClCCl
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/CH2Cl2/c2-1-3/h1H2
InChI Key InChIKey=YMWUJEATGCHHMB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Kingdom Organic Compounds
Super Class Organohalogen Compounds
Class Organochlorides
Sub Class
Direct Parent Alkyl Chlorides
Alternate Parents "Alkyl Chlorides"
Geometric Description Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
Substituents "organochloride", "alkyl chloride", "Aliphatic Acyclic Compound", "Alkyl Halide"
Descriptors "a small molecule (MetaCyc)", "one-carbon compound (ChEBI)", "chloromethanes (ChEBI)"
Status Detected and Not Quantified
Origin Exogenous
Cellular Locations "Cytoplasm", "Extracellular"
Biofluids
Tissues
Pathways
State Liquid
Appearance Colorless liquid.
Melting Point -96.8°C
Boiling Point
Solubility 13 mg/mL at 25°C
LogP 1.25
Route of Exposure Oral (L188) ; inhalation (L188) ; dermal (L188)
Mechanism of Toxicity Methylene chloride targets the lungs, blood system, and nervous system. In the lungs its metabolites damage Clara cells. It is also metabolized into carbon monoxide, which binds to hemoglobin to produce dose-dependent increases in carboxyhemoglobin. This results in the reduced oxygen transport and neurological dysfunction characteristic of carboxyhemoglobinemia (carbon monoxide poisoning). Methylene chloride is also believed to cause neurotoxicity by interfering with signal transmission in a manner similar to general anesthetics. Certain metabolites, such as formaldehyde, may result in carcinogenic effects by causing DNA single strand breaks, DNA-protein crosslinks, and other mutations. (T10, L188)
Metabolism Absorption mainly occurs via inhalation, but may also result from oral or dermal exposure. Methylene chloride is mainly distributed to the adipose tissue and liver. It may be metabolized by cytochrome P-450 2E1, which ultimately produces carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide via formyl chloride. Methylene chloride can also be metabolized by theta glutathione-S-transferase, which produces carbon dioxide via a postulated glutathione conjugate (S-chloromethyl glutathione) and formaldehyde. Both pathways produce toxic metabolites which are excreted mainly in expired air, but also in the urine. (T10, L188)
Toxicity LD50: 437 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Mouse) (T14) LD50: 6460 mg/kg (Subcutaneous, Mouse) (T14) LD50: 1600 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (T32) LC50: 14 400 ppm over 7 hours (Inhalation, Mouse) (T14)
Lethal Dose 357 mg/kg (oral) or 50 000 ppm (inhalation) for an adult human. (T34)
Carcinogenicity 2A, probably carcinogenic to humans. (L135)
Uses/Sources Methylene chloride is widely used as a solvent in industrial processes, paint stripper, and degreaser. It is also used in food preparation, aerosol propellants, pesticides, and the manufacture of photographic film. (T10, L188)
Minimum Risk Level Acute Inhalation: 0.6 ppm (L134) Intermediate Inhalation: 0.3 ppm (L134) Chronic Inhalation: 0.3 ppm (L134) Acute Oral: 0.2 mg/kg/day (L134) Chronic Oral: 0.06 mg/kg/day (L134)
Health Effects Exposure to methylene chloride may cause optic neuropathy and hepatitis. Very high concentrations can lead to unconciousness, coma, and death. It is metabolized to carbon monoxide, potentially leading to carbon monoxide poisoning. Methylene chloride also causes liver and kidney injury, and may be a carcinogen. (T10, L189)
Symptoms Breathing large amounts of methylene chloride causes dizziness, nausea, tingling or numbness of the finger and toes, loss of concentration, and reduced hand-eye coordination. Very high concentrations can lead to unconciousness, coma, and death. Skin contact with methylene chloride causes burning and redness of the skin. (L188, L189)
Treatment Treatment of methylene chloride exposure is mainly symptomatic. Ingested methylene chloride may be removed by emesis and/or gastric lavage, and activated charcoal. Hyperbaric oxygen may be used to treat the carbon monoxide poisoning that can result from inhalation of methylene chloride. (L190)
DrugBank ID
HMDB ID HMDB31548
PubChem Compound ID 6344
ChEMBL ID
ChemSpider ID 6104
KEGG Compound ID C02271
UniProt ID 0
OMIM ID 0
ChEBI ID 15767
BioCyc ID CPD-4521
CTD ID D008752
Stitch ID Methylene chloride
PDB ID
ACToR ID 885
Wikipedia Link http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dichloromethane
Creation Date 2009-03-06 18:58:02
Update Date 2014-12-24 20:21:04