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Name Description
id 29
T3DB ID T3D0033
Name Tetrachloroethylene
Class SmallMolecule
Description Tetrachloroethylene, also known under the systematic name tetrachloroethene, or perchloroethylene ('perc'), and many other names, is a chlorocarbon with the formula Cl2C=CCl2. It is a colorless liquid widely used for dry cleaning of fabrics, hence it is sometimes called 'dry-cleaning fluid.' It has a sweet odor detectable by most people at a concentration of 1 part per million (1 ppm). Worldwide production was about one million metric tons in 1985. Animal studies and a study of 99 twins by Dr. Samuel Goldman and researchers at the Parkinson's Institute in Sunnyvale, California determined there is a 'lot of circumstantial evidence' that exposure to tetrachloroethene increases the risk of developing Parkinson's disease ninefold. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified tetrachloroethene as a Group 2A carcinogen, which means that it is probably carcinogenic to humans. Like many chlorinated hydrocarbons, tetrachloroethene is a central nervous system depressant and can enter the body through respiratory or dermal exposure. Tetrachloroethene dissolves fats from the skin, potentially resulting in skin irritation. This reaction can be catalyzed by a mixture of potassium chloride and aluminium chloride or by activated carbon.
Categories "Cigarette Toxin", "Household Toxin", "Industrial/Workplace Toxin", "Pollutant", "Airborne Pollutant", "Synthetic Toxin"
Types "Organic Compound", "Organochloride", "Solvent", "Pollutant", "Metabolite", "Cigarette Toxin", "Household Toxin", "Industrial/Workplace Toxin", "Synthetic Compound"
Synonyms "1,1,2, 2-Tetrachloroethylene", "1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethene", "1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethylene", "Ankilostin", "Antisal 1", "Antisol 1", "Carbon bichloride", "Carbon dichloride", "Didakene", "Dow-per", "Ethylene tetrachloride", "Fedal-Un", "Nema", "PCE", "Perawin", "PERC", "Perchlor", "Perchlorethylene", "Perchlorethylene, per", "Perchloroethene", "Perchloroethylene", "Perclene", "Perclene D", "Perclene TG", "Percloroetilene", "Percosolve", "PERK", "Perklone", "PerSec", "Tetlen", "Tetracap", "Tetrachlooretheen", "Tetrachlorathen", "Tetrachlorethylene", "Tetrachloro-Ethene", "Tetrachloro-Ethylene", "Tetrachloroethene", "Tetracloroetene", "Tetraguer", "Tetraleno", "Tetralex", "Tetravec", "Tetroguer", "Tetropil"
CAS Number 127-18-4
Chemical Formula C2Cl4
Average Molecular Mass 165.83
Monoisotopic Mass 163.88
IUPAC Name tetrachloroethene
Traditional Name perchloroethylene
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/C2Cl4/c3-1(4)2(5)6
Kingdom Organic Compounds
Super Class Organohalogen Compounds
Class Vinyl Halides
Sub Class Vinyl Chlorides
Direct Parent Chlorocarbons
Alternate Parents "Chloroalkenes", "Organochlorides"
Geometric Description Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
Substituents "organochloride", "Aliphatic Acyclic Compound", "Chloroalkene", "Vinyl Chloride", "Haloalkene"
Descriptors "chloroethenes (ChEBI)", "a small molecule (MetaCyc)", "chlorocarbon (ChEBI)"
Status Detected and Quantified
Origin Exogenous
Cellular Locations "Membrane"
Biofluids "Blood"
State Liquid
Appearance Colorless liquid.
Melting Point -22.3°C
Boiling Point
Solubility 0.206 mg/mL at 25°C
LogP 3.4
Route of Exposure Oral (L116) ; inhalation (L116) ; dermal (L116)
Mechanism of Toxicity Tetrachloroethylene is believed to affect the central nervous system by altering the fatty acid pattern of brain phospholipids and amino acids, or being incorporated into brain membranes, which may alter neural conduction velocity. Tetrachloroethylene's liver toxicity is caused mainly by its metabolite, trichloroacetic acid (TCA), which induces hepatocellular peroxisomes, causing DNA damage and leading to liver cancer. It is also thought to interfere specifically with energy-dependent hepatic transport functions by inhibiting cell membrane ATPases and decreasing hepatocyte ATP levels. (L116, A63)
Metabolism Tetrachloroethylene is readily absorbed following inhalation, oral, and dermal exposure. Once tetrachloroethylene is absorbed, its relatively high lipophilicity results in distribution to fatty tissue. Some tetrachloroethylene is metabolized to trichloroacetic acid (TCA) by cytochrome P-450 enzymes and the glutathione-conjugation pathway, then excreted in the urine. The remaining unmetabolized tetrachloroethylene is exhaled. (L116)
Toxicity LD50: 3835 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (L116) LD50: 4678 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Rat) (T18)
Lethal Dose 2857 mg/kg for an adult human. (T13)
Carcinogenicity 2A, probably carcinogenic to humans. (L135)
Uses/Sources Tetrachloroethylene is used for dry cleaning of fabrics and for metal-degreasing. It is also used to make other chemicals and is used in some consumer products, such as paint strippers and spot removers. (L116)
Minimum Risk Level Acute Inhalation: 2 ppm (L134) Intermediate Inhalation: 0.1 ppm (L134) Acute Oral: 0.2 mg/kg/day (L134)
Health Effects Tetrachloroethylene is a central nervous system depressant. It is also known to cause liver and kidney damage, and is a probably carcinogen. (L116)
Symptoms Exposure to high concentrations of tetrachloroethylene can cause dizziness, headache, sleepiness, confusion, nausea, difficulty in speaking and walking, unconsciousness, and death. Irritation may result from repeated or extended skin contact with it. (L116)
Treatment Tetrachloroethylene has no known antidote, and exposure is usually treated symptomatically. (L116)
DrugBank ID
PubChem Compound ID 31373
ChemSpider ID 13837281
KEGG Compound ID C06789
UniProt ID 0
ChEBI ID 17300
CTD ID D013750
Stitch ID Tetrachloroethylene
ACToR ID 1350
Wikipedia Link http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetrachloroethylene
Creation Date 2009-03-06 18:57:57
Update Date 2014-12-24 20:20:56