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Name Description
id 15
T3DB ID T3D0016
Name Trichloroethylene
Class SmallMolecule
Description Trichloroethylene is a solvent and extractive in the manufacture of foods. One recent review of the epidemiology of kidney cancer rated cigarette smoking and obesity as more important risk factors for kidney cancer than exposure to solvents such as trichloroethylene. In contrast, the most recent overall assessment of human health risks associated with trichloroethylene states, [t]here is concordance between animal and human studies, which supports the conclusion that trichloroethylene is a potential kidney carcinogen. The evidence appears to be less certain at this time regarding the relationship between humans and liver cancer observed in mice, with the NAS suggesting that low-level exposure might not represent a significant liver cancer risk in the general population. The chemical compound trichloroethylene is a chlorinated hydrocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent. It is a clear non-flammable liquid with a sweet smell. The first known report of TCE in groundwater was given in 1949 by two English public chemists who described two separate instances of well contamination by industrial releases of TCE. Based on available federal and state surveys, between 9% to 34% of the drinking water supply sources tested in the U.S. may have some TCE contamination, though EPA has reported that most water supplies are in compliance with the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 5 ppb. In addition, a growing concern in recent years at sites with TCE contamination in soil or groundwater has been vapor intrusion in buildings, which has resulted in indoor air exposures, such is in a recent case in the McCook Field Neighborhood of Dayton, Ohio. Trichloroethylene has been detected in 852 Superfund sites across the United States, according to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Under the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974, and as amended annual water quality testing is required for all public drinking water distributors. The EPA'S current guidelines for TCE can be found here. It should be noted that the EPA's table of TCE Releases to Ground is dated 1987 to 1993, thereby omitting one of the largest Superfund Cleanup sites in the nation, the NIBW in Scottsdale, Arizona. The TCE released here occurred prior to its appearance in the municipal drinking wells in 1982. This reaction can be catalyzed by a variety of substances. The most commonly used catalyst is a mixture of potassium chloride and aluminum chloride. However, various forms of porous carbon can also be used. This reaction produces tetrachloroethylene as a byproduct, and depending on the amount of chlorine fed to the reaction, tetrachloroethylene can even be the major product. Typically, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene are collected together and then separated by distillation.Trichloroethylene: Parkinsonism and complex 1 mitochondrial neurotoxicity). Trichloroethylene is an effective solvent for a variety of organic materials. Trichloroethylene belongs to the family of Organochlorides. These are organic compounds containing a chlorine atom.
Categories "Cigarette Toxin", "Household Toxin", "Industrial/Workplace Toxin", "Pollutant", "Airborne Pollutant", "Food Toxin", "Synthetic Toxin"
Types "Organic Compound", "Organochloride", "Solvent", "Pollutant", "Food Toxin", "Anesthetic", "Metabolite", "Cigarette Toxin", "Household Toxin", "Industrial/Workplace Toxin", "Synthetic Compound"
Synonyms "1,1,1-Trichloroethylene", "1,1,2-Trichloro-Ethene", "1,1,2-Trichloroethene", "1,1,2-Trichloroethylene", "1,1-Dichloro-2-chloroethylene", "1,2,2-Trichloroethylene", "1-Chloro-2,2-dichloroethylene", "Acetylene trichloride", "Algylen", "Altene DG", "Anamenth", "Benzinol", "Blacosolv", "Blancosolv", "C2HCl3", "Cecolene", "Chlorilen", "Chlorylea", "Chlorylen", "Chorylen", "Circosolv", "Crawhaspol", "Densi nfluat", "Densinfluat", "Disparit b", "Distillex DS2", "Dow-tri", "Dukeron", "Ethinyl trichloride", "Ethylene trichloride", "Fleck-flip", "Flock flip", "Fluate", "Gemalgene", "Germalgene", "Lanadin", "Lethurin", "Narcogen", "Narkogen", "Narkosoid", "Nialk", "Perm-a-chlor", "Perm-a-clor", "Petzinol", "Philex", "TCE", "Tce (chlorohydrocarbon)", "Threthylen", "Threthylene", "Trethylene", "TRI", "Tri-Clene", "Tri-plus", "Tri-plus m", "Triasol", "Tric hloroethene", "Trichlooretheen", "Trichloorethyleen, tri", "Trichloraethen", "Trichloraethylen", "Trichloran", "Trichlorathane", "Trichloren", "Trichlorethene", "Trichlorethylene", "Trichlorethylenum", "Trichloro-Ethene", "Trichloro-Ethylene", "Trichloroethene", "TrichloroetheneI", "Trichloroethylene (tce)", "Trichloroethylenum", "Trichlorothene", "Triciene", "Tricloretene", "Tricloroetilene", "Tricloroetileno", "Trielene", "Trielin", "Trielina", "Trieline", "Trik lone", "Triklone", "Triklone N", "Trilen", "Trilene", "Trilene TE-141", "Triline", "Trimar", "Triol", "Vestrol", "Vitran", "Westrosol"
CAS Number 06-01-79
Chemical Formula C2HCl3
Average Molecular Mass 131.39
Monoisotopic Mass 129.91
IUPAC Name 1,1,2-trichloroethene
Traditional Name trichloroethylene
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/C2HCl3/c3-1-2(4)5/h1H
Kingdom Organic Compounds
Super Class Organohalogen Compounds
Class Vinyl Halides
Sub Class Vinyl Chlorides
Direct Parent Organochlorides
Alternate Parents "Chloroalkenes", "Organochlorides"
Geometric Description Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
Substituents "organochloride", "Aliphatic Acyclic Compound", "Chloroalkene", "Vinyl Chloride", "Haloalkene"
Descriptors "chloroethenes (ChEBI)", "a small molecule (MetaCyc)"
Status Detected and Not Quantified
Origin Exogenous
Cellular Locations "Cytoplasm", "Extracellular", "Membrane"
State Liquid
Appearance Colorless liquid.
Melting Point -84.8°C
Boiling Point 86.7°C (188.1°F)
Solubility 1.28 mg/mL at 25°C
LogP 2.42
Route of Exposure Oral (L14) ; inhalation (L14)
Mechanism of Toxicity The toxic and carcinogenic effects of trichloroethylene are believed to be caused mainly by its metabolites, including trichloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, and chloral hydrate. The nephrotoxicity and nephrocarcinogenicity of TRI have been attributed to glutathione conjunction, which forms reactive, sulfur-containing metabolites. Dichloroacetic acid is known to inhibit pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, while chloral hydrate inhibits alcohol dehydrogenase. Studies in rodents have shown that neurotoxic effects may be caused by trichloroethylene's incorporation into brain membranes or ability to alter the fatty acid pattern of brain phospholipids and amino acids. One of the mechanisms of trichloroethylene's carcinogenicity is believed to be the peroxisome proliferation induced by its metabolites. (L14, T12, A46)
Metabolism Trichloroethylene is absorbed into the bloodstream and rapidly distributed throughout the body. Some is metabolized via cytochrome P-450 enzymes and the glutathione-conjugation pathway into metabolites such as trichloroacetic acid and trichloroethanol, which are excreted primarily in the urine. However, most trichoroethylene is exhaled unchanged or as carbon dioxide. (L15)
Toxicity LD50: 2402 mg/kg (Oral, Mouse) (T18) LD50: 20 001 mg/kg (Dermal, Rabbit) (T18) LD50: 3222 mg/kg (Intraperitoneal, Mouse) (T18)
Lethal Dose 3 to 5 mg/kg for an adult human. (L138)
Carcinogenicity 1, carcinogenic to humans. (L135)
Uses/Sources Trichloroethylene is mainly used as an industrial solvent, particularily to remove grease from metal parts. It is also an ingredient in adhesives, paint removers, typewriter correction fluids, and spot removers. Exposure may result from contact with contaminated water. (L14)
Minimum Risk Level Acute Inhalation: 2 ppm (L134) Intermediate Inhalation: 0.1 ppm (L134) Acute Oral: 0.2 mg/kg/day (L134)
Health Effects Chronic inhalation or ingestion of tricholoethylene causes nerve, kidney, and liver damage, impaired immune system function, impaired fetal development in pregnant women, and possibly death. It has also been linked to both kidney and liver cancer. (L14)
Symptoms Inhalation of trichloroethylene causes headaches, lung irritation, dizziness, poor coordination, and difficulty concentrating, while ingestion results in nausea. Larger amounts may cause unconciousness and impaired heart function. Skin contact often results in rashes. (L14)
Treatment There is no known antidote for trichloroethylene. Exposure is usually handled with symptomatic treatment. (L15)
DrugBank ID
PubChem Compound ID 6575
ChemSpider ID 13837280
KEGG Compound ID C06790
UniProt ID 0
ChEBI ID 16602
CTD ID D014241
Stitch ID Trichloroethylene
ACToR ID 1414
Wikipedia Link http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trichloroethylene
Creation Date 2009-03-06 18:57:55
Update Date 2014-12-24 20:20:52