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Name Description
id 18
T3DB ID T3D0019
Name White Phosphorus
Class SmallMolecule
Description White phosphorus is a colorless, white, or yellow waxy solid with a garlic-like odor. It does not occur naturally, but is manufactured from phosphate rocks. White phosphorus reacts rapidly with oxygen, easily catching fire at temperatures 10 to 15 degrees above room temperature. White phosphorus is used by the military in various types of ammunition, and to produce smoke for concealing troop movements and identifying targets. It is also used by industry to produce phosphoric acid and other chemicals for use in fertilizers, food additives, and cleaning compounds. Small amounts of white phosphorus were used in the past in pesticides and fireworks. Exposure to white phosphorus may come through working at a facility where white phosphorus is manufactured, breathing contaminated air near a facility that is using white phosphorus, eating contaminated fish or game birds or drinking or swimming in water that has been contaminated with white phosphorus, or touching soil contaminated with white phosphorus. Little information is available about the health effects that may be caused by white phosphorus. Most of what is known about the effects of breathing white phosphorus is from studies of workers. Most of what is known about the effects of eating white phosphorus is from reports of people eating rat poison or fireworks that contained it. Breathing white phosphorus for short periods may cause coughing and irritation of the throat and lungs. Breathing white phosphorus for long periods may cause a condition known as 'phossy jaw' which involves poor wound healing of the mouth and breakdown of the jaw bone. Eating or drinking small amounts of white phosphorus may cause liver, heart, or kidney damage, vomiting, stomach cramps, drowsiness, or death. The effects of chronic ingestion are unknown. Skin contact with burning white phosphorus may burn skin or cause liver, heart, and kidney damage. It is not known whether white phosphorus affects fertility or causes birth defects. There are no studies linking white phosphorus to cancer in humans or animals. (L2077)
Categories "Industrial/Workplace Toxin", "Pollutant", "Airborne Pollutant", "Synthetic Toxin"
Types "Inorganic Compound", "Non-Metal", "Pollutant", "Industrial/Workplace Toxin", "Synthetic Compound"
Synonyms "Phosphorus", "Tetraphosphorus", "White phosphorus", "Willie Pete", "Willy Pete", "WP", "Yellow phosphorus"
CAS Number 12185-10-3
Chemical Formula P4
Average Molecular Mass 123.90
Monoisotopic Mass 123.90
IUPAC Name tricyclo[1.1.0.0²,?]tetraphosphane
Traditional Name phosphorus
SMILES P12P3P1P23
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/P4/c1-2-3(1)4(1)2
InChI Key InChIKey=OBSZRRSYVTXPNB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Kingdom Inorganic Compounds
Super Class Homogeneous Non-metal Compounds
Class Homogeneous Other Non-metal Compounds
Sub Class
Direct Parent Homogeneous Other Non-metal Compounds
Alternate Parents "Heterocyclic Compounds"
Geometric Description
Substituents "Heterocycle", "Homogeneous other non metal", "Heteropolycyclic compound"
Descriptors "tetraatomic phosphorus (ChEBI)"
Status Detected and Not Quantified
Origin Exogenous
Cellular Locations "Mitochondria", "Rough endoplasmic reticulum"
Biofluids
Tissues "Heart", "Intestine", "Kidney", "Liver", "Lung", "Skin"
Pathways
State Solid
Appearance Translucent waxy solid that quickly becomes yellow when exposed to light. Glows greenish in the dark when exposed to oxygen.
Melting Point 44.15°C
Boiling Point 280°C
Solubility 0.0033 mg/mL at 15°C [KIRK-OTHMER; on-line (2005)]
LogP
Route of Exposure Inhalation; dermal; ingestion. (L88)
Mechanism of Toxicity Exposure to white phosphorus has been shown to damage the rough endoplasmic reticulum and cause a disaggregation of polyribosomes. This damage results in impairment of protein synthesis, in particular, a decrease in the synthesis of the apolipoprotein portion of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), which are required for the transport of triglycerides. This causes an accumulation of triglycerides in the liver, resulting in steatosis and fibrosis. White phosphorus also damages the mitochondia, impairing a cell’s ability to produce ATP and resulting in necrosis. The mitochondrial damage may also inhibit fatty acid oxidation, which could result in an accumulation of fat in the organs. (L88)
Metabolism Since white phosphorus is highly reactive in the presence of oxygen, it is likely rapidly converted to its oxidation products prior to absorption into the body. Little is known about the metabolism of white phosphorus in the body, although the oxo acids of phophorus are known to be found in the bloodstream.
Toxicity LD50 Rat (Charles-River, female) oral 3.03 mg/kg (L88) LD50 Rat (Charles-River, male) oral 3.76 mg/kg (L88) LD50 Mouse (Swiss, female) oral 4.82 mg/kg (L88) LD50 Mouse (Swiss, male) oral 4.85 mg/kg (L88)
Lethal Dose 1 mg/kg body weight (L138)
Carcinogenicity No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/Sources White phosphorus does not occur naturally, but is manufactured from phosphate rocks. White phosphorus is used in many military applications, especially in smokescreens, bombs, artillery, and mortars. It is also used by industry to produce phosphoric acid and other chemicals for use in fertilizers, food additives, and cleaning compounds. Small amounts of white phosphorus were used in the past in pesticides and fireworks. (L88)
Minimum Risk Level Acute Inhalation: 0.02 mg/m3 (L134) Intermediate Oral: 0.0002 mg/kg/day (L134)
Health Effects Exposure to white phosphorus may cause liver, heart, or kidney damage. It can also result in death. Breathing white phosphorus for long periods may cause a condition known as 'phossy jaw', which involves poor wound healing of the mouth and breakdown of the jaw bone. Anemia and leukopenia in people chronically exposed to airborne white phosphorus. (L88)
Symptoms Breathing white phosphorus for short periods may cause coughing and irritation of the throat and lungs. Eating or drinking small amounts of white phosphorus may cause stomach cramps, or drowsiness. (L88)
Treatment Ingestion of white phosphorus can be treated with gastric lavage. Otherwise, treatment is mainly symptomatic. (L88)
DrugBank ID
HMDB ID
PubChem Compound ID
ChEMBL ID
ChemSpider ID 109894
KEGG Compound ID
UniProt ID 0
OMIM ID 0
ChEBI ID 35895
BioCyc ID
CTD ID
Stitch ID Phosphorus, white
PDB ID
ACToR ID 0
Wikipedia Link http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allotropes_of_phosphorus#White_phosphorus
Creation Date 2009-03-06 18:57:56
Update Date 2014-12-24 20:20:53