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Name Description
id 66
T3DB ID T3D0074
Name Zinc
Class SmallMolecule
Description A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with anemia, short stature, hypogonadism, impaired wound healing, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Categories "Drug", "Household Toxin", "Industrial/Workplace Toxin", "Pollutant", "Food Toxin", "Natural Toxin"
Types "Inorganic Compound", "Metal", "Zinc Compound", "Pollutant", "Drug", "Food Toxin", "Metabolite", "Household Toxin", "Industrial/Workplace Toxin", "Natural Compound", "Trace Element"
Synonyms "Zinc (II) cation", "Zinc ion", "Zinc ion (Zn2+)", "Zinc(2+)", "Zinc(2+) ion", "Zinc(II)", "Zn", "Zn(2+)", "Zn2+"
CAS Number 7440-66-6
Chemical Formula Zn
Average Molecular Mass 65.41
Monoisotopic Mass 63.93
IUPAC Name zinc(2+) ion
Traditional Name zinc(2+) ion
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/Zn/q+2
Kingdom Inorganic Compounds
Super Class Homogeneous Metal Compounds
Class Homogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Sub Class
Direct Parent Homogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Alternate Parents "Inorganic Cations"
Geometric Description Acyclic Compounds
Substituents "Inorganic Cation", "Acyclic Compound", "Homogeneous Transition Metal"
Descriptors "monoatomic dication (ChEBI)", "divalent metal cation (ChEBI)", "a cation (MetaCyc)", "zinc cation (ChEBI)"
Status Detected and Not Quantified
Origin Endogenous
Cellular Locations "Cytoplasm", "Extracellular"
State Solid
Appearance Bluish-white metallic solid.
Melting Point 419.5°C
Boiling Point 908°C
Route of Exposure Oral (L49) ; inhalation (L49) ; dermal (113)
Mechanism of Toxicity Excessive zinc intake alters copper and iron absorption, most likely through competitive binding in intestinal mucosal cells. Stomach acid dissolves metallic zinc, producing zinc chloride, which is a corrosive product damaging the stomach lining. Metal fume fever is thought to be an immune response to inhaled zinc. (L48, L49, A49)
Metabolism Zinc enters the body through the lungs, skin, and gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal absorption of zinc is controlled by zinc carrier protein CRIP and metallothioneins. Zinc is widely distributed in tissues and tissues fluids, and concentrated in the liver, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, skin, lung, brain, heart, and pancreas. Zinc binds to carbonic anhydrase in erythrocytes, and to albumin, ?2-macroglobulin, and amino acids in the the plasma. Albumin and amino acid bound zinc can diffuse across tissue membranes. Zinc is excreted in the urine and faeces. (L49)
Toxicity LD50: 630 mg/kg (Oral, Rat) (T31)
Lethal Dose
Carcinogenicity No indication of carcinogenicity to humans (not listed by IARC).
Uses/Sources Zinc has many commercial uses as coatings to prevent rust, in dry cell batteries, and can be mixed with other metals to produce alloys such as brass and bronze. Zinc compounds are widely used in industry to make paint, rubber, dyes, wood preservatives, and ointments. (L49)
Minimum Risk Level Intermediate Oral: 0.3 mg/kg/day (L134) Chronic Oral: 0.3 mg/kg/day (L134)
Health Effects Chronic exposure to zinc causes anemia, atazia, lethargy, and decreases the level of HDL (good) cholesterol in the body. It is also believed to cause pancreatic and reproductive damages. Unbalanced levels of copper and zinc binding to Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase have been linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). (L49)
Symptoms Ingestion of large doses of zinc causes stomach cramps, nausea, and vomiting. Acute inhalation of large amounts of zinc causes metal fume fever, which is characterized by chills, fever, headache, weakness, dryness of the nose and throat, chest pain, and coughing. Dermal contact with zinc results in skin irritation. (L49)
Treatment Zinc poisoning is treated symptomatically, often by administering fluids such as water or milk, or with gastric lavage. (L49)
DrugBank ID DB01593
PubChem Compound ID 23994
ChemSpider ID 22430
KEGG Compound ID C00038
UniProt ID 0
OMIM ID 103600
ChEBI ID 30185
BioCyc ID ZN%2b2
CTD ID D015032
Stitch ID Zinc
ACToR ID 6568
Wikipedia Link Zinc
Creation Date 2009-03-06 18:58:02
Update Date 2014-12-24 20:21:03